University of Minnesota
Software Engineering Center

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Nancy Leveson

Recent Publications


In the system engineering of complex systems that include digital automation, the most vexing and potentially costly problems arise in the early stages of development. Few adequate tools exist to assist in developing system requirements and architectures and translating the system requirements to software requirements. Serious unsolved problems also exist at the other end of the lifecycle in changing or upgrading automated control tasks without introducing errors.

Completeness and Consistency in Hierarchical State-Based Requirements.

This paper describes methods for automatically analyzing formal, state-based requirements specifications for some aspects of completeness and consistency. The approach uses a low-level functional formalism, simplifying the analysis process. State-space explosion problems are eliminated by applying the analysis at a high level of abstraction; i.e., instead of generating a reachability graph for analysis, the analysis is performed directly on the model.

Requirements Specification for Process Control Systems

This paper describes an approach to writing requirements specifications for process-control systems, a specification language that supports this approach, and an example application of the approach and the language on an industrial aircraft collision avoidance system (TCAS II).